Selection of the right type of brush

Wire type, diameter and length

Wire Brushes Vs. Hard Abrasives

  • Wire brushes act as an impact tool removing oxide, paint or other adherence from the surface without damaging the base material, as opposed to hard abrasives which will remove the base material along with the surface adherence.
  • Wire brushes are much more flexible allowing the ability to clean difficult areas to reach and adapt to irregular surfaces, which bonded and coated abrasives can not.
  • The selection of the right type of brush depends on the type of finishing required (fine or coarse), and the characteristics of the surface to be brushed (stainless steel, carbon steel, wood, etc…).
    Besides that, in the case of the brushes fixed in a machine, it is necesary to know the main features of the machine in order to choose the right brush type:

    • The maximum diameter allowed.
    • The machine speed or RPM.
    • The arbor hole diameter or the thread type (M14, 5/8”-11, etc…).

JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Cepillos vs Abrasivos
JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Información técnica de cepillos

Crimped Wire, Twisted Knot Wire and Abrasive Nylon

  • Crimped wire brushes, because of their higher flexibility, are appropiate to work on uneven surfaces and they obtain a more regular and fine finishing.
  • Twist knot wire, offers longer life and a higher removal capacity but a more rough finishing.
  • Abrasive Nylon brushes have the flexibility of crimped wire and offers a smoother finishing.

Trim Length

  • A short trim length makes the brush face rigid and consequently the brush removal capacity is higher.
  • With a longer trim length the brush becomes flexible and it provides a uniform brushing even on irregular surfaces.

Wire Diameter and Characteristics of Abrasive Nylon

Wire gauge of a brush determines the type of surface finishing:

  • A thicker wire provides for a more aggressive brushing action.
  • The larger the nylon grit size is the smoother finishing you get.

Brush dimensions and R.P.M.

JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Información técnica de cepillos
  • The outer diameter of the brush influences the peripheral speed.
  • The larger the diameter of the brush, the fewer rotations you need to achieve the desired result, therefore, the conclusion is that, at lower RPM, we obtain better results in less time.
  • For effective brushing, it is recommended to choose the right brush for the machine to be used.
  • Take into account the maximum RPM of the machine, protections etc …

R.P.M.

Peripherical speed

The power tool speed influences the performance of the brush and the safety of the operador. If load speed marked on the power tool is higher than the brush MAXIMUM RPM, do not mount the brush. Maximum RPM are indicated on brush side plates and shall never be exceeded.

MAXIMUM RPM are the maximum RPM at which the brush could be run with no work applied (spinning free). It is merely a safety indication for the user, not the recommended operating speed.

Cutting speed [m/s]

Removal Steel Stainless Steel and Brass Nylon
Burr 25-35m/s 20-25m/s 15-20m/s
Weld pass 40-45m/s 35-35m/s  
Oxides, Varnishes, Corrosion 30-35m/s 20-25m/s 15-20m/s
Paints and Scales 40-45m/s 35-35m/s  

Converting m/sec in ft/min: 1 m/sec = 197 ft/min | 1ft/min = 5,08 m/sec

n Ø Brush d1 [mm]
[r.p.m.] 25 30 40 50 60 75 80 100 115 125 150 175 200 250 300
1.000 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 13 16
1.250 2 2 3 3 4 5 5 7 8 8 10 11 13 16 20
1.500 2 2 3 4 5 6 6 8 9 10 12 14 16 20 24
1.750 2 3 4 5 5 7 7 9 11 11 14 16 18 23 27
2.000 3 3 4 5 6 8 8 10 12 13 16 18 21 26 31
2.500 3 4 5 7 8 10 10 13 15 16 20 23 26 33 39
3.000 4 5 6 8 9 12 13 16 18 20 24 27 31 39 47
3.500 5 5 7 9 11 14 15 18 21 23 27 32 37 46 55
4.000 5 6 8 10 13 16 17 21 24 26 31 37 42 52 63
4.500 6 7 9 12 14 18 19 24 27 29 35 41 47 59 71
5.000 7 8 10 13 16 20 21 26 30 33 39 46 52 65 79
5.500 7 9 12 14 17 22 23 29 33 36 43 50 58 72  
6.000 8 9 13 16 19 24 25 31 36 39 47 55 63 79  
6.500 9 10 14 17 20 26 27 34 39 43 51 60 68    
7.000 9 11 15 18 22 27 29 37 42 46 55 64 73    
7.500 10 12 16 20 24 29 31 39 45 49 59 69 79    
8.000 10 13 17 21 25 31 34 42 48 52 63 73      
10.000 13 16 21 26 31 39 42 52 60 65 79        
12.000 16 19 25 31 38 47 50 63 72 79          
14.000 18 22 29 37 44 55 59 73              
16.000 21 25 34 42 50 63 67                
20.000 26 31 42 52 63 79                  
22.000 29 35 46 58 69                    
25.000 33 39 52 65 79                    
Material Ø mm Ø " Wire Code
Grey Steel 0,12 .005 A
Brass Coated Steel 0,15 006 B
0,20 .008 C
0,25 .010 D
0,30 .012 E
0,35 .014 F
0,40 .016 G
0,50 .020 H
12 x 0,23 (2) 12 x .009 #
6 x 0,353 + 3 x 0,20 6 x 014 + 3 x.008 @
Stainless Steel 0,15 .006 M
0,20 .008 N
0,30 .012 Z
0,40 .016 P
0,50 .020 Q
7 x 0,35 7 x .013 @Z
Brass 0,08 .003 U
0,30 .012 V
0,40 .016 X
Grey Steel 0,37 .015 J
0,50 .020 K
0,80 .032 L
German Silver 0,08 .003 O
Flat Steel 0,90 x 0,50 .035 x .020 T
Galvanised Steel 0,43 .017 S
Laminated Wire 3 x 0,20 + 6 x 0,35 3 x .008 + 6 x .014 W
0,50 .020 Y

Example
Brush diameter d1=150mm
R.P.M.: 3000 r.p.m
Cutting Speed: 24m/s

R.P.M.: 5.000 r.p.m.

Cutting speed (v) =
d1 x π x nº de rev. (n)
1.000 x 60
Conversion Table mm / "
Ø Brush Ø Wire
mm " mm " I.S.W.G
25 1" 0,08 0,003" 44
50,8 2" 0,1 0,004" 42
76,2 3" 0,12 0,005" 40
101,6 4" 0,15 0,006" 38
127 5" 0,2 0,008" 36
152,4 6" 0,25 0,01" 33
177,8 7" 0,3 0,0118" 31
203,2 8" 0,35 0,0138" 29
228,6 9" 0,4 0,016" 27
254 10" 0,5 0,02" 25
279,4 11" 0,8 0,0315" 21
JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Información técnica de materiales

Main actions to be taken with brushes

JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Desbarbar

Deburring

Deburring is the action of removing burrs, these are normally produced after performing cutting or machining operations on certain materials such as steel, stainless steel, aluminum, brass, etc.

  • For deburring carbon steel, brushes with carbon steel are best suited for these applications. As a general rule, the larger the diameter of the wire filament, the more aggressive removal the brush has.
  • For deburring stainless steel, it is best to use brushes with stainless steel wires to avoid problems of contamination on the working surface.
  • For deburring brass it is recommended that the brush wires are made of brass. There are many materials and alloys that are also deburred, the most suitable option must be tried in each case.
JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Texturizar

Surface preparation

Surface preparation is the process of changing the surfaces appearance of a material. Wood is a typical material to apply this process. By passing a steel brush over a wooden surface we are able to highlight the hardest grain, replicating an aged wood look. This process is also known by the term “Rustic”.

The diameter of the wire is important to obtain the desired finish, some woods are harder and require a larger wire diameter than soft woods.

For the final step during finishing, some experts use abrasive nylon brushes, these soften the aggressive passage of the steel.

Other materials/surfaces are also prepped, such as stainless steel, stone or rubber. Preparing stainless steel is also known as a “satin finish”. A wide range of products are used to provide a satin stainless-steel finish, the most common is abrasive wheels, but in some cases abrasive nylon brushes are used, fixed to a wheel sander machine.

JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Gastar material

Grinding

Removal of paint, rust, dirt, coatings on metal parts etc … The steel wire brush is the ideal tool for this application. The wires remove rust, paint, coatings etc … very easily.

In any of the styles of a brush, cup, circular, end brush etc … the performance is ideal for this application. If the result is not as expected, try using a larger diameter wire or changing from a crimped wire style brush to a twisted knot wire brush for more cutting action.

JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Limpiar

Cleaning

Removing of labels, cleaning of welding joints, stripping of wire rod, cleaning of molds, foundry dust, pad printing on metal parts, conveyor belts, etc …

Steel brushes are not always the right solution. Depending on the metal part to be cleaned, you can also use synthetic fibers (nylon, polypropylene, pekalon, etc.) for cleaning. For example, a plastic conveyor belt cannot be cleaned with wire brushes, but you can do it with synthetic fiber brushes.

There are other types of brushes made with natural fibers such as Horse hair, Tampico, Wild pig hair, etc.). This type of fiber has the advantage of not creating static electricity. In some cleaning processes, the friction of synthetic fibers with surfaces generates static electricity and they are useless, hence the use of vegetable fibers.

JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Barrer

Sweeping

Eliminate melt sands, dust, flours, etc. Synthetic fiber brushes are the most suitable for this type of aplication. Normally it is about removing substances that are loosely attached to the surface.

The food industry is a common user of this type of application.

JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Acabado

Finishing

With our main focus of finishing surfaces with the use power and hand brushes, we specialize in fill materials that can be used in brushes. With brushes it is not possible to achieve finishing that is possible with other materials such as scotch brite, abrasive sponges, etc …

In the market, abrasive nylon, aluminum oxide, diamond, etc. fibers are available. They are the most widely used abrasives in brushes. With this type of brushes, fine burrs and improvements in surface finishing are achieved. These are synthetic fiber filaments impregnated in the different types of abrasive mentioned above. The most widely used fiber is Abrasive Nylon.

Finishing Grade
Wire Abrasive nylon Sandpaper Polish Sweep
Coarse W1 NA1 SP1 P1 SW1
Medium W2 NA2 SP2 P2 SW2
Fine W3 NA3 SP3 P3 SW3
Superfine W4 NA4 SP4 P4 SW4
Neutral W5 NA5 SP5 P5 SW5
Removal
JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Arranque - Flexibilidad
Flexibility
JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Arranque - Flexibilidad
JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Superficies

Surface treatment

The first step is to identify the type of surface that the application will be performed on; steel, stainless steel, aluminum, wood etc. The following is a our recommendation for what brush fill material is best to be used for each work surface material.

Carbon steel

For brushing carbon steel material, the most common brushes to use are made with carbon steel wires. Only in cases where carbon steel is at high temperatures is it recommended to use stainless steel brushes. Carbon steel rusts in heat and stainless does not.

JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Material: Inox.

Stainless steel

As a general rule, it is recommended to use stainless steel wire brushes for brushing stainless steel surfaces, to avoid oxidation problems in on the material.

Wood

Wood has different characteristics than other materials. The end user is the one who knows the finishing type he is looking for and that can change the criteria when selecting brushes. They are generally carbon steel brushes along with abrasive nylon brushes. The choice of wire thickness will depend on the type of wood (hard or soft), as well as the grain of the abrasive nylon.

Non-sparking

We consider Non-Sparking those metallic surfaces where sparks should not be generated when brushing because they are in environments with a risk of explosion. For brushing surfaces and not wanting to generate sparks, we recommend using solid brass wire brushes.

JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Material: Otros

Other surfaces

  • Rubber: In rubber brushing processes, tire manufacturers, retreading and metal-rubber component industry, use carbon steel brushes.
  • Leather: The footwear sector also uses carbon steel brushes to prepare the leather before gluing it to the sole.
  • Jewelry: To work these delicate surfaces, jewelers use brushes made of brass and nickel silver with very fine filaments (0.08mm).
  • Stone: This type of surface is usually worked with steel brushes and also with abrasive brushes. On the one hand, it is possible to remove soft elements from the stone as well as satin and / or aged finishes. Abrasive brushes are common on marble, quartz, granite, ceramic and terrazzo surfaces.
JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Acciones

Necessary steps for the correct choice of a brush

The choice of a brush depends on several criteria to take into account

1.

Material you are working on/ Surface to be treated

Steel
JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Material: Inox.
Stainless / Aluminum
Non-sparking
Wood
JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Material: Otros
Others

2.

Power tool being used

Drill
Grinder
JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Mini-amoladora
Mini-Grinder
Die-Grinder
JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Mini-amoladora
Wood Portable Machine
Bench-Grinder
Industrial Machine
By hand

3.

Type of application

Cleaning
Surface preparation
Deburring
Grinding
Finishing
Polishing
Sweeping

4.

Surface finish required

Finishing Grade
Wire Abrasive nylon Sandpaper Polish Sweep
Coarse W1 NA1 SP1 P1 SW1
Medium W2 NA2 SP2 P2 SW2
Fine W3 NA3 SP3 P3 SW3
Superfine W4 NA4 SP4 P4 SW4
Neutral W5 NA5 SP5 P5 SW5
Removal
JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Arranque - Flexibilidad
Flexibility
JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Arranque - Flexibilidad

Work efficiency increases as a brush diameter increases. To calculate the biggest possible diameter, it is necessary to consider the maximum RPM of the power tool or machine being used (i.e. for an electric tool with maximum RPM of 6,000, the brush should not exceed 175 mm diameter).

A shorter trim length provides a more aggressive brushing action, whereas flexibility to adapt to irregular or uneven surfaces increases as trim length increases. In contrast to abrasives and cutting tools, wire brushes do not remove the base material of a treated surface. Herein, brushes serve as an essential tool for a wide range of industrial processes.

Multithreads and Adapters: The exclusive and patented JAZ threaded nut provides for a number of advantages: Easier tightening into machines. Higher resistance of the brush against possible deformation. The multithread option allows the use of one brush on machines with different types of spindle: R88 threaded nut: fits both 5/8-11” and M14-2 machines. R77 threaded nut: fits both M10x1,25 and M10x1,5.

The purpose of these innovations is to help distributors better manage the line by reducing the number of SKU-s or items and improve their level of service to their customers and end users.

Diagram to calculate the Power required on Wheel Brushes

JAZ ZUBIAURRE: Criterios de selección de cepillos

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